RISING | SUMMER 2019

Ignorance = Fear / Silence = Death" by Keith Haring, 1989  During the 1980s and 1990s, AIDS and complications from it killed nearly half a million people in the United States, a disproportionate number of them gay men and people of color. AIDS became one of the most searing issues in American life and politics. The artistic community lost thousands; still more friends, lovers, and family members faced lives transformed by grief, fear, indignation, and illness. Often adopting the visual strategies of previous protest movements, artists mobilized against AIDS by deploying a sophisticated understanding of media culture, advertising, and product branding. Their widely distributed posters, artworks, and graphics were often used at marches and rallies or were posted on the street. Keith Haring was diagnosed with AIDS in 1987 and two years later, he completed one of his most widely recognised posters. He was determined to give a voice to those who felt silenced during this period and used the pink triangle that had been reappropriated by the LGBT community after being used in the Holocaust to identify gay people.  Credit: Keith Haring Foundation  Source: https://whitney.org/Education/ForTeachers/TeacherGuides/Protest

Ignorance = Fear / Silence = Death" by Keith Haring, 1989

During the 1980s and 1990s, AIDS and complications from it killed nearly half a million people in the United States, a disproportionate number of them gay men and people of color. AIDS became one of the most searing issues in American life and politics. The artistic community lost thousands; still more friends, lovers, and family members faced lives transformed by grief, fear, indignation, and illness. Often adopting the visual strategies of previous protest movements, artists mobilized against AIDS by deploying a sophisticated understanding of media culture, advertising, and product branding. Their widely distributed posters, artworks, and graphics were often used at marches and rallies or were posted on the street. Keith Haring was diagnosed with AIDS in 1987 and two years later, he completed one of his most widely recognised posters. He was determined to give a voice to those who felt silenced during this period and used the pink triangle that had been reappropriated by the LGBT community after being used in the Holocaust to identify gay people.

Credit: Keith Haring Foundation

Source: https://whitney.org/Education/ForTeachers/TeacherGuides/Protest

LETTER FROM THE EDITOR

Dear Reader,

It’s my honor to share our sixth issue of The Social Justice Review with you. “Rising” celebrates those who act in the face of injustice. The fight for social change and justice is as relevant today as ever, and we want to celebrate the art and writing which compels resistance, demands reform, and builds communities. For this powerful and timely issue, we supplemented thought-provoking written pieces with historic and contemporary protest art to juxtapose the social action of today with the chants of those who marched before us.

Pieces such as “Awareness is not Activism” by Jahman Hill remind readers that adversity demands active response, not just the ability to know better. When political action fails, poetry prevails in “An Imaginary Parkland Address” as Francisco Castro Videla dreams of a country where the president aids in healing the wounds of a fractured nation. "Hope and Community Among Migrants in Tijuana" by Bryce Merrill and "A Statue for Our Harbor" by Gialina Morten asks us to revaluate how we define what it means to be American.

The injustices faced across the world are seldom met by the action required to solve them. Fear and hatred permeate the surface and threaten the rights and safety of citizens. Instead of building walls and marking boundaries, we should strive to stand and shout in the face of inequality. In the United States alone, the past 100 years have seen the women’s suffrage movement, the Civil Rights Movement, and the Vietnam War protests. More recently, Black Lives Matter and the #MeToo movement have come to the forefront of our cultural consciousness. If there is one constant in social justice, it’s the undeniable and inevitable motivation to act.

When injustices seem insurmountable, it’s our hope that you will find solace in the work we hope to share. Moreover, we hope you are compelled to scream, to speak up, to take to the streets and to the classrooms, to call your representatives, and when all else fails, rise up.

In solidarity, Kelly Clark 

Editor-in-Chief, The Social Justice Review

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*AN IMAGINARY PARKLAND ADDRESS

BY FRANCISCO CASTRO VIDELA

*AN IMAGINARY PARKLAND ADDRESS

(WASHINGTON D.C., MARCH 24TH)

PRESIDENT of THE UNITED STATES of AMERICA:

“My fellow citizens 

no preamble is necessary to determine

                                                    or relate 

the meaning and the reason 

of our gathering here today. 

during the last few hours

during the last few days

during the last few years

there have been words in abundance, 

images in abundance,

and voices in abundance to detail, 

                                                   thoroughly, 

our presence upon these sombre fields;

words, 

           images 

                       and voices; 

        we have had plenty of those; 

we have grown tired of those; 

we have grown indifferent of those.

standing here, 

no longer beneath the calm blue vault 

                         of vast Floridian skies

but in the bleak mid-winter 

         of our grieving hearts

we proclaim and we call 

undeterred by misery and loss:

now is the time for deliberate action; 

now is the time for fearless determination; 

now is the time for passionate enterprise.

action, 

           determination 

                                   and enterprise; 

three simple words that would baffle

and utterly and irrevocably perplex 

any mortal man or woman we dare 

call our representatives upon that Hill.

too long have they averted the People

with their resounding pledges, 

and their echoing promises. 

too long have they deflected

the People’s honourable demand

with empty declarations

and splendidly financed speeches.

and the People have been believing

and the People have been patient

but the People have never been forgetful.

the Old Book puts it wisely:

‘there is a time to plant 

and a time to pluck up

that which is planted.’

 

                 I say the fruit is ripe.

I say it is ready for the plucking.

I say it is ripe with the blood

            of our brothers and sisters.

I say it is ripe with the sorrow

            of our mothers and fathers. 

I say it is ripe with the future

            of our children. 

therefore I avow 

therefore We The People avow 

let us be rid of this cruel weed 

              that has snarled itself 

around the good seed of our Nation. 

my fellow citizens

a choice must be made:

this land of plenty

                              this vale of life

cannot hold both Violence and Freedom 

as its driving Principles

both have grown together 

but now it is time for the Reapers 

to burn the one

                       and gather the other.”

'It's coming from the feel/ That this ain't exactly real/ Or it's real, but it ain't exactly there.'

L. Cohen, 1992

HOPE AND COMMUNITY AMONG MIGRANTS IN TIJUANA

PHOTO SERIES BY BRYCE MERRILL

In December 2018, journalism student Sydney Zuckerman and I went to Tijuana, Mexico to learn about and document the status of the Central American migrant caravan residing there in hopes of gaining asylum in the United States. While there, we heard about the conditions (mostly in Honduras) that led them to join the caravan, the journey so far, and their hopes for the future. This migrant movement as a whole impressed me as extremely brave, struck powerful cords of human commonality, and demonstrated the arbitrary nature of political borders.

Always Time for Play  I’d like to start by sharing this capture of two young boys fully enjoying a moment, regardless of the tension-filled and controversial situation going on around them. I was amazed and inspired by the abundant positivity of the people residing in this camp (both adults and children) and believe that this side of the story should be shared alongside the conditions of the camp and political status of the movement.

Always Time for Play

I’d like to start by sharing this capture of two young boys fully enjoying a moment, regardless of the tension-filled and controversial situation going on around them. I was amazed and inspired by the abundant positivity of the people residing in this camp (both adults and children) and believe that this side of the story should be shared alongside the conditions of the camp and political status of the movement.

Life at Benito Juarez Sports Complex  As the caravan arrived in Tijuana, the local government decided to use the Benito Juarez Sports Complex as a temporary shelter for the influx of migrants. This photo depicts the haphazard nature of the camp, which was much less regulated than traditional (indoor) housing shelters, but the communal attitude of the migrants seemed to ease interaction among the shelter’s temporary residents.

Life at Benito Juarez Sports Complex

As the caravan arrived in Tijuana, the local government decided to use the Benito Juarez Sports Complex as a temporary shelter for the influx of migrants. This photo depicts the haphazard nature of the camp, which was much less regulated than traditional (indoor) housing shelters, but the communal attitude of the migrants seemed to ease interaction among the shelter’s temporary residents.

An Expression of Faith  After photographing the emotional reaction of this man, José Acosta, to a hope-filled sermon at the migrant shelter, Sydney and I had the pleasure of interviewing him about his experience as part of the caravan. José informed us that he left behind his wife and his five children in Honduras when he joined the caravan in search of better work. He explained that, like many others, any job that he worked in Honduras paid so little that he was unable to support his family even while working long hours. When asked ask if he had a message to share with citizens/residents of the United States, José responded (translated by me): “Please listen to your conscience. The truth is that we [Hondurans] are people that want to do the right thing. We have been struggling, working, walking because we have no choice. If you have humanity, please help us cross the border. We are really just honest people that want to work, we are not criminals.”

An Expression of Faith

After photographing the emotional reaction of this man, José Acosta, to a hope-filled sermon at the migrant shelter, Sydney and I had the pleasure of interviewing him about his experience as part of the caravan. José informed us that he left behind his wife and his five children in Honduras when he joined the caravan in search of better work. He explained that, like many others, any job that he worked in Honduras paid so little that he was unable to support his family even while working long hours. When asked ask if he had a message to share with citizens/residents of the United States, José responded (translated by me): “Please listen to your conscience. The truth is that we [Hondurans] are people that want to do the right thing. We have been struggling, working, walking because we have no choice. If you have humanity, please help us cross the border. We are really just honest people that want to work, we are not criminals.”

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Top image: Setting Up, Bottom image: Passing Time

Top image: Setting Up, Bottom image: Passing Time

Community Support  Although some Tijuana residents seem to resent the abrupt influx of migrants into their city, many members of the community were very supportive of the bold members of the caravan. This picture shows two Tijuana residents that dedicated hours each day (since the caravan arrived a week ago) providing hot food (purchased and cooked out of their own pockets) to migrants. These individuals felt grateful for their good fortune and the support they had received from their community throughout their lives, so they saw providing these hot meals as a way to pass along that goodwill.

Community Support

Although some Tijuana residents seem to resent the abrupt influx of migrants into their city, many members of the community were very supportive of the bold members of the caravan. This picture shows two Tijuana residents that dedicated hours each day (since the caravan arrived a week ago) providing hot food (purchased and cooked out of their own pockets) to migrants. These individuals felt grateful for their good fortune and the support they had received from their community throughout their lives, so they saw providing these hot meals as a way to pass along that goodwill.

Apoyamos  This photo shows a migrant caravan member as he departs on a bus for another shelter. While living conditions were reportedly much better in these secondary shelters, they were also more distant from the Mexican-American border (up to 45 minutes by bus). In this light, many migrants refused to leave the Benito Juarez sports complex due to its location in sight of the border. This bus is marked with the short message ‘apoyamos,’ which means ‘we support.’ I took this to mean that the migrants support each other, which was a theme I saw constantly exemplified during my short time at the camp. This migrant movement as a whole impressed me as extremely brave and struck powerful cords of human commonality and the arbitrary nature of political borders. I hope that this movement inspires international compassion in the coming years.

Apoyamos

This photo shows a migrant caravan member as he departs on a bus for another shelter. While living conditions were reportedly much better in these secondary shelters, they were also more distant from the Mexican-American border (up to 45 minutes by bus). In this light, many migrants refused to leave the Benito Juarez sports complex due to its location in sight of the border. This bus is marked with the short message ‘apoyamos,’ which means ‘we support.’ I took this to mean that the migrants support each other, which was a theme I saw constantly exemplified during my short time at the camp. This migrant movement as a whole impressed me as extremely brave and struck powerful cords of human commonality and the arbitrary nature of political borders. I hope that this movement inspires international compassion in the coming years.

"Democracy! We are running out of blood for democracy" by Hong Song-Dam, 1983  Woodblock print calling for blood donations during the Gwangju Uprising. The Gwangju Uprising was a mass pro-democratic protest against the South Korean military government that took place in the southern city of Gwangju between May 18 and 27, 1980 with nearly a quarter of a million people participating in the rebellion.

"Democracy! We are running out of blood for democracy" by Hong Song-Dam, 1983

Woodblock print calling for blood donations during the Gwangju Uprising. The Gwangju Uprising was a mass pro-democratic protest against the South Korean military government that took place in the southern city of Gwangju between May 18 and 27, 1980 with nearly a quarter of a million people participating in the rebellion.

THE CANDLELIGHT REVOLUTION: REVOLUTION WITHOUT BLOODSHED

BY JEEWEON MOON

Introduction

On March 10th, 2017, the judges of South Korea’s Constitutional Court brought their final verdict: the impeachment of President Park Guen-hye. President Park, now with the dishonorable title of the first South Korean president to be impeached, stepped out of the presidential palace, awaiting future trials for her charges on bribery, corruption, extortion, and more (Choe). President Park Guen-hye was not the first corrupt government official, but unlike other social movements which have struggled for change, let alone, peace, South Korea’s first presidential impeachment was the result of an especially effective and unprecedented civil democratic overthrow. A Harvard professor, Paul Chang, replied in his interview with the Harvard Political Review that “what stood out most, other than the incredible scale of course, was how civil the protest was...There was not even a hint of possible violence” (A. Kim, 2017). Here, he refers to South Korea’s Candlelight Revolution in which tens of millions of people protested by holding up candles and marching to remove President Park Guen-hye from power. The Candlelight Revolution is unique and notable for its nonviolent nature and successful results, which required factors like unification of citizens, practice in history, and the widespread usage of media to happen.

The Protest

The Chief Justice, Lee Jung Mi, described President Park’s actions as one that “betrayed the trust of the people and of the kind that cannot be tolerated for the sake of protecting the Constitution” (Choe). The cause of Park Guen-hye’s scandal dates back to her youth. Her father, Park Chung Hee, ruled over South Korea as a dictator for 16 years. After losing both of her parents by assassination, Park Guen-hye became increasingly close with a woman named Choi Sun Sil. Choi was a daughter of Choi Tae Min, who founded the cult of Eternal Life Church in the 1970s. Taking advantage of Park’s parents’ passing, Choi began establishing her control and as Park became a political force and was elected as the president in 2013, Choi amassed a substantial amount of wealth and political power herself. Such facts, however, weren’t revealed to the public until the summer of 2016 (Griffiths).

In July, 2016, a news platform called TV Chosun broadcasted about Mir Foundation and K Sports Foundation, which were reported to have gathered about 80 million dollars as a donation from various business companies and corporations. However, it was the suggestion that the Korean government might be involved with its financial funding that really began controversy in the media. Later in November, Choi Sun Sil was outed for her connections to the two foundations. As controversies around Choi intensified, her daughter Chung Yoo-Ra’s admission into Ehwa University, the most reputable women’s university in South Korea, also came to attention. Chung Yoo-Ra’s admission was revealed as a preferential decision stemming from pressure from Choi. The widespread tensions that were gradually building finally erupted into a mass protest in October, when another news media outlet, JTBC, found Choi’s abandoned computer containing President Park’s classified and secret documents (Han). The collection of documents, coined the “Choi Files,” contained various government and legal material, from presidential speeches and personal schedules to human resources and diplomatic records, proving suspicions that President Park was merely Choi’s puppet (Chung). On October 25th, President Park released a televised apology to the public in which she admitted giving those files to her “friend,” Choi. However, it wasn’t enough to subdue the anger of citizens. For weeks, hundreds of thousands of South Korean citizens came out, lighting up the streets with candles in their hands. The protest continued on for ten weeks, recording 1.5 million people on the fifth protest, and ending with a total number of 10 million protestors (Yoo), a large feat for a country with a population of 50 million.

Significance of Nonviolence

Many scholars described the 2016 Candlelight Revolution as a significant movement, the most prominent reason being its nonviolence especially at its unprecedented scale. Nonviolent protest is closely associated with specific behaviors described as, “civilian-led action in which unarmed persons confront opponents using coordinated, purposive, sequences of nonviolent methods” (Day, Pinckney, and Chenoweth, 129). As such, a nonviolent protest is not a vague or arbitrary term. Indeed, nonviolent protests are significant in two primary ways: First, they have a shared moral ideology—they represent right to speech, but also the protection of human life and safety as “an indication of ‘human development’...and…‘human empowerment’” (Dalton and Welzel, 213). Second, are their efficacy. Erica Chenoweth and Maria J. Stephan, the authors of the book “Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict,” demonstrated that of twenty-five of the largest resistance campaigns between 1900 and 2006 nonviolent protests were 70% successful, whereas for violent protests, only 40% were successful (Chenoweth and Stephan, 33). Chenoweth and Maria suggest that nonviolent protests appeal better to the public, thus bringing out greater participation and mobilization. The lack of physical risks and/or costs motivate more people to join, and there are less physical and financial barriers for women, elderly, or teenagers (Chenoweth and Stephan, 35). Compared to violent protests, nonviolent protests have larger memberships, but require less training and resources when recruiting and organizing members. Non-violent protests do not require experience in using weapons or military tactics, nor do they require the need to gather equipment or substantial amount of financial funding (Chenoweth and Stephan, 37).

South Korea’s Nonviolent Protests: The Candlelight Revolution

The history of South Korea’s candlelight protests goes back to 2002, when thousands of Korean citizens held up candles in vigil for two teenage girls killed by American soldiers. When the court trial acquitted the soldiers, the vigil turned into a protest for a fair verdict. Since this incident, mass civil movements in Korea have taken the form of candlelight protest that signifies the opposition to injustice (S. Kim). Later, another major candlelight protest occurred in 2004 when citizens protested against the impeachment of President No Mu Hyun. More than 200,000 people took to the streets, consisting of both groups who agree and disagree about the impeachment, and ended in peace with no casualty. Again, in 2008, thousands of people protested against government’s reactions to Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, also known as the Mad Cow Disease, as well as its approval of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA). Again in 2014, people gathered to mourn for the 300 lives lost during the Sewol Ferry accident and demanded a quick and thorough investigation of the incident. Candlelight was thus engraved in people’s mind as the symbol of justice and a tool of change (Sim).

On October 29th, 2016, the first candlelight protest of the Candlelight Revolution against President Park broke out. At first, the protesters voiced for President Park’s resignation. When the president refused, however, the citizens began to advocate for impeachment. On December 19th, the National Assembly of Korea passed the bill to move on to voting procedure for the president’s impeachment. For 134 days, people continued to protest in large squares, like the Gwanghwamun Square, until finally, on March 10th, the president was impeached.

As a whole, the protest incorporated an extremely diversified group of people ranging from elderly, adults, and students, to children, families, and celebrities. There was no individual political party that dominated or led the protest, and the high participation rate of ordinary citizens was noted by foreign media. Despite the diversity—ideological and otherwise—the protest was completely nonviolent, but even more noteworthy was that it was the citizens themselves who overwhelmingly pushed for nonviolence. For example, when a group of protesters tried to engage themselves in a fight with city police, everyone around dissuaded both the police and the protesters from making violent actions. In another incident, when a protester fainted, doctors and nurses who were protesting nearby ran to aid. Strangers brought hot packs, water bottles, and towels from their nearby homes to help. The recurring civility of protestors shows their deliberate goals for safety and non-violent action. The communal atmosphere of the Candlelight Revolution is often compared to that of a festival. Jungyoon Choi, a high school student who participated in one of the candlelight protests in October, described her experience as, “uplifting, feeling overwhelmed by an indescribable wave of emotion by just being there at that moment.”  Famous Korean celebrities and singers performed during many of the protests. Large stages, lights, and sound facilities were set up in the streets. People created satirical shows, posters, and art, mockingly dressing as Choi, or using humor to criticize the president. These protests were broadcasted on live shows throughout Korea. Donations accumulated to over 600 million dollars.

Why South Korea?

South Korea’s Candlelight Revolution's success did not happen in a vacuum, instead three traits specific to South Korea enabled a smooth transition from public outrage to peaceful protest: stable unification of the public, culture and history that provided preceding practices, and the common usage of the internet. The cause of this revolution was so widely agreed upon that it brought about strong unification. Commonly, political issues, such as government-passed bills, or new diplomatic relationships, tend to polarize constituencies. For example, the deployment of Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) in South Korea was one of the most debated issues in 2016. The population was split distinctly in two, with 46.3% of citizens supporting, and 45.7% opposing the deployment (Son). Such occurrences of controversy are typical of almost any political issue, as diverse cultural, social, and educational backgrounds lead to different perspectives.

However, President Park’s scandal was different. By November, Park's support ratings plummeted to 5%, which meant that almost 95% of the citizens, an extreme majority, opposed President Park (“BBC Asia”). The specifics of this scandal were intolerable to people regardless of their backgrounds, as was shown through the consistently decreasing support rate for President Park during the protests. People were united against one figure, so the goals and agendas for each protest was clear and definite, and decision makings were quick and efficient. This almost unanimous agreement on an issue was a rare occasion, but because it was so rare, it proved to be a powerful stimulus for South Korea’s Candlelight Revolution.

Compounding with the unanimity of the cause, the history and culture of South Korea provided citizens with practice and training for nonviolent protests. When the scandal broke out, it was implicitly agreed that holding candles was the key to representing public opposition. Previous incidents in history, like the protest against FTA or the vigil for the Sewol Ferry Accident, served as a guideline for action. For example, people immediately created organizations, like ‘Bisang 2016’ which was responsible for informing protestors of specific venues and dates, and also led fundraisers for the protest (“Bisang16”). If it wasn’t for more than 10 years of the Candlelight Revolution’s history, citizens would not have been aware of efficient means of organization.

In addition, South Korean society and culture are more collective than individual. Dr. Tan Soo Kee, in her International Journal of East Asian Studies, states that South Korea’s collectivist atmosphere is “contributed by its national education system and compulsory military training program” (Kee). National education systems like Membership Training (MT) gather college freshman students on a mandatory trip, doing teamwork-building activities and games to “promote friendship and community spirit” (S.S. Kim), and have become a vital part of college culture. Similarly, Chul Joon Moon, a sophomore who finished his two year military training—mandatory for all men in Korea—in May, said he was “grouped into military units and lived together, facing consequences and accomplishing tasks as a whole.” Even though this collectivist culture is often criticized for its overly oppressive discipline, it was a helpful factor in South Korea’s Candlelight Revolution as working as a group was not a new concept to most citizens, and control and discipline contributed to successful organizing of a large scale revolution.

The usage of internet is one of the most important factors that led South Korea to its successful revolution. Because it is supplied to almost all households, there were fewer gaps between generations—it was used from kindergarteners and teenagers to adults and elders. Therefore, a larger number of people were able to participate in using this online media to share information on candlelight protests. According to the Korea Social Research Center’s report on “Online-Mediated Mobilization: Revisiting the Candlelight Demonstration and its Theoretical Significance,” the venue and time for each protest was uploaded on websites, and Social Network Services (SNS) broadcasted the protests in live videos. Such live broadcasts made people witness the climactic atmosphere all around the country, being able to recruit more members which then resulted in raising the number of participants in each protests (Choi, 84). The report also reveals how people contributed ideas to the protest through the internet, sharing new slogans, poster designs, and activities that were physically brought out to the protests. People celebrated and praised the results for each protest by sharing statistical data, photos of clean streets, and inspirational quotes of personal experiences, which encouraged the continuity of nonviolence and civil order (Choi, 98). In addition, the report concludes that online debate forums or free discussion websites also contributed to creating a collective emotion and public sentiment; this, with the common tendency of citizens to be swayed by public opinion, resulted in unifying Korean citizens’ causes (Choi, 73). Even among More Economically Developed Countries (MEDCs), universal internet utilization is uncommon and, therefore, an important and unique feature of South Korea.

The most direct and evident result of this candlelight protest, as mentioned several times above, was the impeachment of President Park. However, this protest holds more meaning and implications than its democratic and political success. It created a new sense of pride and civil order among citizens by eliminating negative stereotypes on mass protests. This, then, resulted in the diminution of political indifference and political pessimism, as Byung Ik Kim reveals in his opinion column for Hankyoreh newspaper (B. Kim). Other researches have also revealed that candlelight protests through year 2000 to 2008 have a direct correlation with the rise in voting participation rates of citizens in their twenties (Koo and Sung, 2).

Despite such successes, however, the Candlelight Revolution did not bring a complete upturn in public’s support of political parties. In the new presidential election in May, 2017, 24% of the public still voted for the candidate from a conservative party, Hong Joon-pyo, who demands full amnesty for President Park (Song). The protest did not succeed in pacifying extreme conservative groups, the most prominent one being People Who Love Park, also called the Park-Sa-Mo.

South Korea’s Candlelight Revolution, and the unique features of the country that enabled such protest, serves as a political protest model to countries around the world. Various scholars, professors, and foreign analysts have praised South Korea’s Candlelight Revolution for exemplifying successful political reform through nonviolence. This complete lack of violence, along with the diverse group of participants and festive-like atmosphere, was one of the three most important features of the revolution. This revolution, without a doubt, is one of the most appropriately fitting examples of a contemporary nonviolent protest. It was only possible because South Korean citizens had easy cause of unification, were trained to previous incidents of Candlelight Revolutions, already lived in a collectivist society, and had easy access to online media. Its success has both surprised and inspired citizens around the world of the possibility and potential of nonviolent protests, as it has proved that such protest can not only be described theoretically but actually be done and led by the citizens.